Biology Homework Chapter 35: Social Behavior
Textbook Assignment: Chapter 35: Behavioral Adaptations sections 12-23.
- 35: 12 Behavioral studies often focus on the development of food-gathering processes used by species in a variety of habitats. Optimal foraging provides maximum energy gain for minimum energy experience with limited exposure to prey.
- 35: 13 Members of the same species population may use auditor, visual, or physical signals to attract mates or mark territorial boundaries, or warn of approaching predators.
- 35: 14 Mating behaviors of promiscuous, monogamous, polygamous types can be explained by the needs of the young of the particular species. Many mating behaviors involved elaborate rituals.
- 35: 15 Parental care is required in many species where the young develop slowly, and must be both protected and fed until they are old enough and experienced enough to survive on their own. Species where parents identify with their young tend to have higher rates of infant survival.
- 35: 16 As with genetic mutations (section 35.3), industrial pollutants may disrupt endocrine system behavior (hormone manufacture and distribution within an organism), causing behavioral changes in courtship rituals that affect breeding rates. It is not yet clear whether such factors will also affect humans.
- 35: 17 Sociobiology is the study of social behavior to determine whether it is the result of genetic or environmental factors, and how it can change within a population.
- 35: 18 Territorial behavior includes actions intended to mark or claim territories to prevent competition from members of the same species, or predation by members of other species.
- 35: 19 Agonistic behavior involves struggles between members of the same species.
- 35: 20 Agonistic struggles often result in dominance hierarchies where a strong leader is needed to protect the family or pride.
- 35: 21 Altruistic
acts, where a individual sacrifices itself for its children or relatives, pose special problems in behavioral studies, because behavior that limits the reproductive success of the altruistic adult runs counter to the assumptions of natural selection. The concept of inclusive fitness may explain why animals will sacrifice themselves for close kin as well as children, since near kin possess nearly identical genetic traits.
- 35: 22 Jane Goodall's studies of chimpanzee behavior in the wild showed that these primates create tools, spend years raising their young, and often engage in trivial behaviors that have significant impact on social communities, such as grooming rituals.
- 35: 23 Determining genetic and environmental factors in the development of human behavior is extremely difficult, and usually focusses on twin studies, where genetic differences are minimized. Human adult behavior forms through a complicated set of factors including nutrition, exposure to different forms of learning, and many teachers.
Read the following weblecture before chat: Social B
Take notes on any questions you have, and be prepared to discuss the lecture in chat.
Perform the study activity below:
Use the interactive activity How Animals Use Sound to Communicate to explore animal interactions.
- Work through the introduction by clicking on the black arrows on the right to bring up all pages of the section. Watch the embedded videos. What kinds of interaction do you observe?
- Select on of the case studies to explore how animals use sound to communicate. (You should do more than one if you have time.)
Chat Preparation Activities
- Essay question: The Moodle forum for the session will assign a specific study question for you to prepare for chat. You need to read this question and post your answer before chat starts for this session.
- Mastery Exercise: The Moodle Mastery exercise for the chapter will contain sections related to our chat topic. Try to complete these before the chat starts, so that you can ask questions.
- Required: Complete the Mastery Exercise with a score of 85% or better.
- Optional: Test yourself with the textbook multiple choice questions and note any that you miss that still don't make sense. Bring questions to chat!
- Go to the Moodle and take the quiz for this chapter.
Read through the lab for this week; bring questions to chat on any aspect of the lab, whether you intend not perform it or not. If you decide to perform the lab, be sure to submit your report by the posted due date.
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