Biology Homework Chapter 35: Learning in Animals
Textbook Assignment: Chapter 35: Behavioral Adaptations to the Environment, sections 1-11
- 35: 1 The study of behavior looks at both the stimulus for the immediate behavior (proximate cause) and the long-term species-adaptation explanation for the behavior (ultimate cause). Those of you who remember Aristotle's four causes will find some similarity here.
- 35: 2 FAPs (fixed action patterns) are innate behavior stimulated by some sign or event, and usually occur in species with short lifespans where there is no time to learn all skills required to survive.
- 35: 3 Experiments with genetic alterations of genes in fruit flies that govern courtship behavior suggest that in these insects, attraction to flies of a particular gender may be hardwired. However, it is still possible to reset genetically programmed behavior through environment factors such as training.
- 35: 4 Learning is any modification in behavior that results from a specific experience. Habituation happens when an animal learns to ignore an unimportant repetitive stimulus.
- 35: 5 Imprinting involves both innate behavior and experience, when animals are programmed to respond to a particular kind of stimulus by learning something about their surroundings.
- 35: 6 Breeding programs and imprinting experiments show that we can use imprinting to accomplish goals in conservation programs.
- 35: 7 Kinesis is random movement in response to a stimulus (the presence of water); taxis is directed movement toward or away from a stimulus (fish swimming upstream).
- 35: 8 Some movements depend on internal maps which may be cognitive maps of territory.
- 35: 9 Associative learning includes linking stimulus to response (such as using signals to summon animals), as well as trial-and-error learning (running into a porcupine is painful; stay away!).
- 35: 10 Social learning involves observing the behavior of others. Cognitive learning is the ability of the nervous system to perceive and store information gained from the senses.
- 35: 11 Problem-solving examples include the rat maze, where rats learn a complex maze pattern in order to reach food at the end.
Read the following weblecture before chat: Innate and Learned Behavior
Take notes on any questions you have, and be prepared to discuss the lecture in chat.
Perform the study activity below:
Use Model 1 of the Virtual Biology Lab on Behavioral Ecology to study Honeybee foraging. Read through the directions (download the PDF) then launch the model. Change the conditions and behaviors to see the effects on each bee's collection success.
Chat Preparation Activities
- Essay question: The Moodle forum for the session will assign a specific study question for you to prepare for chat. You need to read this question and post your answer before chat starts for this session.
- Mastery Exercise: The Moodle Mastery exercise for the chapter will contain sections related to our chat topic. Try to complete these before the chat starts, so that you can ask questions.
- No quiz yet: the Chapter Quiz opens when we finish the chapter.
Read through the lab for this week; bring questions to chat on any aspect of the lab, whether you intend not perform it or not. If you decide to perform the lab, be sure to submit your report by the posted due date.
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