Biology Homework Chapter 32: Transportation of Nutrients
Textbook Assignment: Chapter 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport, sections 1-11.
- 32.1 A terrestrial plant gets CO2 from the air; water, minerals (needed for proteins, nucleic acids, and other specialized molecules), and some O2 from the ground through its roots.
- 32.2 Substances enter roots by passing through cell membranes (which control what passes into the cell), or through the cells as far as the Casparian strip.
- 32.3 Transpiration pulls water up xylem vessels; root pressure pushes water part way up the column. Evaporation off the top of the plant causes a partial vacuum, which pulls water molecules (held together by cohesion) up the plant's vascular system.
- 32.4 Changing the concentration of K+ ions allows the guard cells to absorb or expell water, which in turn changes the size of the stomat openings and controls the rate of transpiration.
- 32.5 Phloem cells use osmosis and concentration gradients to transport nutrients such as sugars from storage areas to other parts of the plant as fuel for respiration and plant activities.
- 32.6 Plant transport structures can be used to harvest plant products such as sap.
- 32.7 Plants pull nutrients from the soil. Large amounts of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus are necessary to create plant structures. Processes are controlled by proteins based primarily on calcium, potassium, magnesium and small amounts of iron, chlorine, copper, manganese, zinc, mlbdenum, boron, and nickel.
- 32.8 Nutrient deficiencies cause specific symptoms in plants. Besides macronutrients like carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus required for photosynthesis, there are three other elements that must be present in soil for healthy plants: calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Fertilizers replenish soil that has been exhausted by growth or erosion.
- 32.9 Fertile soil contains the essential nutrients, inclduing crucial elements, including water and organic materials (humus), in different layers, A (topsoil with the most humus), B (middle layer), and C (drainage layer).
- 32.10 Irrigation, wind and water erosion all change the soil levels, reducing the amount of topsoil; conserving soil is now a major concern.
- 32.11 Organic farming uses ecologically-friendly methods to reduce disease and infestations without chemicals.
- 32.12 Agricultural research improves crop yields.
Read the following weblecture before chat: Nutrient Transport in Plants.
Take notes on any questions you have, and be prepared to discuss the lecture in chat.
Perform the study activity below.
- Scroll down and read the instructions.
- Using the dropdowns at the top, select a plant and an appliance, and run the simulation for 1 hour (it will immediately post results; it does not actually take an hour!).
- Note the plant's appearance (size of leaves, number of leaves).
- Chose a different plant and the same appliance, and run the simulation.
- Repeat with several plants and then with different appliances.
- Draw some conclusions about what affects plant transpiration (leaf size, air flow, heat, light).
Chat Preparation Activities
- Essay question: The Moodle forum for the session will assign a specific study question for you to prepare for chat. You need to read this question and post your answer before chat starts for this session.
- Mastery Exercise: The Moodle Mastery exercise for the chapter will contain sections related to our chat topic. Try to complete these before the chat starts, so that you can ask questions.
- No quiz yet: the Chapter Quiz opens when we finish the chapter.
Read through the lab for this week; bring questions to chat on any aspect of the lab, whether you intend not perform it or not. If you decide to perform the lab, be sure to submit your report by the posted due date.
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