Biology Homework Chapter 24: The Immune System
Textbook assignment: Chapter 24: The Immune System, sections 1-11.
- 24.1 All animals have immune systems that fight infection with both nonspecific and specific defense mechanisms.
- 24.2 The non-specific response mechanisms attack any type of infection. These mechanisms include
- Phages like monocytes and neutrophils (white blood cells) that "eat" invading their prey.
- Interferons sent from an infected cell to help an uninfected cell resist infection
- Specialized proteins that block invading cell metabolic functions
- Inflammatory response, which uses histamine hormones to trigger increased blood flow (heat), white blood cells
- 24.3 Adaptive responses target specific infections by creating antibodies to deactivate antigens, the infecting agents.
- The lymph system serves two purposes
- 24.4 Collecting wastes from the body and returning them to the blood stream for processing
- 24.5 Hosting lymphocytes in nodes, where they will be ready to fight infection
- 24.6 Responding host cells use antigen receptors to identify invading particles, which may include antigen proteins or wastes from the invader that stimulate response from the body.
- 24.7 Clonal selection provides a specific response to an invasion: once the effective antibody-producing cell has been identified, it is reproduced in quantity to fight the infection.
- 24.8 Among the cloned cells are memory cells that can be rapidly activated in case a second infection occurs.
- 24.9 Antibodies mark pathogens for destruction by other cells by binding to the surface of the antigen. They may also
- block the antigen's destructive activity directly
- cause the pathogen cells or viruses to clump together (agglutination).
- cause the antigen proteins to precipitate out of the interstial liquid as innert solids
- 24.10 Engineered antibodies can be used as laboratory agents and research and as drugs to treat certain cancers.
- 24.11 Antibody levels can indicate immune responses that have been activated against a particular disease, even years after disease exposure.
Read the following weblecture before chat: Immune System Components
Take notes on any questions you have, and be prepared to discuss the lecture in chat.
Perform the study activity below:
Work through the seven animations on Innate Immunity at the Stanford VIBE site.
- What are the sources of antigens?
- How do the innate and adaptive responses differ?
- What kinds of cells respond to innate infections and how do their responses differ?
- How do tissues in the digestive system limit infections?
- How does the innate response system limit infection when a wound punctures the skin?
Chat Preparation Activities
- Essay question: The Moodle forum for the session will assign a specific study question for you to prepare for chat. You need to read this question and post your answer before chat starts for this session.
- Mastery Exercise: The Moodle Mastery exercise for the chapter will contain sections related to our chat topic. Try to complete these before the chat starts, so that you can ask questions.
- No quiz yet: the Chapter Quiz opens when we finish the chapter.
Read through the lab for this week; bring questions to chat on any aspect of the lab, whether you intend not perform it or not. If you decide to perform the lab, be sure to submit your report by the posted due date.
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