Biology Homework Chapter 24: The Immune System
Textbook assignment: Chapter 24: The Immune System, sections 1-11.
- 24.1 All animals have immune systems that fight infection with both nonspecific and specific defense mechanisms.
- 24.2 The non-specific response mechanisms attack any type of infection. These mechanisms include
- Phages like monocytes and neutrophils (white blood cells) that "eat" invading their prey.
- Interferons sent from an infected cell to help an uninfected cell resist infection
- Specialized proteins that block invading cell metabolic functions
- Inflammatory response, which uses histamine hormones to trigger increased blood flow (heat), white blood cells
- 24.3 Adaptive responses target specific infections by creating antibodies to deactivate antigens, the infecting agents.
- The lymph system serves two purposes
- 24.4 Collecting wastes from the body and returning them to the blood stream for processing
- 24.5 Hosting lymphocytes in nodes, where they will be ready to fight infection
- 24.6 Responding host cells use antigen receptors to identify invading particles, which may include antigen proteins or wastes from the invader that stimulate response from the body.
- 24.7 Clonal selection provides a specific response to an invasion: once the effective antibody-producing cell has been identified, it is reproduced in quantity to fight the infection.
- 24.8 Primary response occurs when a previously un-encountered antigen enters the sytem and triggers development of a response. Secondary response occurs when an already-encountered antigen sets off the developed response.
- 24.9 Antibodies mark pathogens for destruction by other cells by binding to the surface of the antigen. They may also
- block the antigen's destructive activity directly
- cause the pathogen cells or viruses to clump together (agglutination).
- cause the antigen proteins to precipitate out of the interstitial liquid as innert solids
- 24.10 Herd immunity is the idea that if enough individuals in the population are immune to a particular disease and cannot become contagious, that disease cannot spread easily.
- 24.11 Flu vaccines are usually optional, and many people choose not get vaccinated, which may contribute to a relatively high death rate compared to diseases that are considered serious and dangerous.
Read the following weblecture before chat: Immune System Components
Take notes on any questions you have, and be prepared to discuss the lecture in chat.
Perform the study activity below:
Launch the interactive exploration of Cells of the Immune System. Use the arrows to page through the slides, and play the videos that explain how these cells work.
Chat Preparation Activities
- Essay question: The Moodle forum for the session will assign a specific study question for you to prepare for chat. You need to read this question and post your answer before chat starts for this session.
- Mastery Exercise: The Moodle Mastery exercise for the chapter will contain sections related to our chat topic. Try to complete these before the chat starts, so that you can ask questions.
- No quiz yet: the Chapter Quiz opens when we finish the chapter.
Read through the lab for this week; bring questions to chat on any aspect of the lab, whether you intend not perform it or not. If you decide to perform the lab, be sure to submit your report by the posted due date.
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