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Chemistry Core/AP

Chapter 12:4-7

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WebLecture: Solutions and their Behavior

Kotz and Triechel, Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity Chapter 13: Sections 1-2.

  1. 13.1 Solubility solutions consist of a solvent and one or more solutes. When the solute is added to the solvent, the solute dissolves or separates into individual units. The number of solute particles per solvent molecule particles affect a number of properties, called colligative properties. We use a number of methods to indicate the ratio of solutes to solvents.
    • Molality is the ratio of the amount of solute (in moles) to the mass of the solvent in kilograms.
    • Molarity is the ration of the amount of solute in moles to the volume of the solution in liters.
    • The mole fraction is the ratio of one substance in moles to the total number of moles of all substances in the solution.
    • The weight percent is ration of the mass of one substance in kg to the mass of the total solution.

    We use which ever measures appropriate for the circumstances.

  2. 13.2 Creating solutions involves breaking apart the molecules of a chemical (solute) by the activity of a solvent. Two liquids are immiscible if neither can act as a solvent against the other. Like dissolves like: polar liquids dissolve other polar liquids and non-polar liquids dissolve other non-polar liquids. Non-polar and polar liquids tend to be immiscible when placed together. Dissolving chemicals is a reaction that can release or require energy (the heat of solution) to break apart a solid formation (lattice energy) and isolate the resulting molecules with solvent molecules (heat of hydration).

    ΔHsoln = -ΔHlattice + ΔHhydration

Homework problems: see the Moodle Chemistry Page.

Videos for Chapter 13: Solutions and their Behavior

Review the Videos at Thinkwell Video Lessons.

Homework problems: See your Moodle assignment!

AP #10 GUIDED INQUIRY — Determination of solution concentration of copper sulfate solutions using visual colorimetry. — Phase I

Preparation: Use Java Applets to simulate spectroscope operation and identify the appropriate spectroscopy required to analyze vibrational or electronic motions. Lab design: Determine how you will create a reference set of standard solutions of copper sulfate. You will be using visual colorimetry methods to determine the relationship between transmittance, absorbance, and concentration of calibrated solutions.