Kotz and Triechel, Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity Chapter 25: Sections 1-3.
- 25.1 The balance of forces within the nucleus are determined by the ratio of neutrons to protons. In stable atoms, this balance preserves the nucleus intact for long periods of time; in unstable atoms, the forces push nuclear components out to reach a more stable energy level. This "decay" of the nucleus can take the form of
- α (alpha) radiation: the ejection of a 2-proton, 2-neutron particle. Alpha emission decreases both the proton and neutron count, and in most cases increases the neutron-to-proton ratio.
- β (beta) radiation: the ejection or capture of either an electron or a positron. Normal beta emission (electron ejection) increases the atomic number and decreases the neutron-to-proton ratio.
- γ (gamma) radiation: the ejection of energy in the form of a photon
- 25.2 Nuclear reaction equations resemble chemical reaction equations in that all particles and charges must be accounted for. The total number of nucleons cannot change, and the total amount of charge cannot change.
A decay reaction may not result in a stable nucleus; subsequent decay reactions may occur in a predictable series (based on observational evidence).
- 25.3 If we take into account all the isotopes of all elements, very few isotopes are actually stable. All isotopes beyond 12683Bi are unstable. Most stable isotopes have either an even number of protons, an even number of neutrons, or an even number of both.
The mass of a nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of its components. We account for the missing mass or mass defect by assuming that it has been converted to the energy used to bind the components together: Ebinding = Δmc2.
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Videos for Chapter 25: Principles of Chemical Reactivity: Entropy and Free Energy
Review the Videos at Thinkwell Video Lessons.
- Under "NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY"
- The Nature of Radioactivity
- The Stability of Atomic Nuclei
- Binding Energy
Homework problems: See your Moodle assignment!
There is no lab for this chapter.
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