Kotz and Triechel, Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity Chapter 18: Sections 4-5.
- 18.4 Entropy increases with temperature and with changes of state involving the input of heat (from solid to liquid, from liquid to gas). The more ways a molecule can change position or move, the greater the number of microstates it can have and the higher its entropy level.
- 18.5 Entropy, like enthalpy and potential energy, is a state value: we measure the difference between two states, but do not measure the absolute zero value of entropy except to establish a baseline under specific conditions. Reactions will be
- spontaneous if they are both exothermic and entropy increases
- spontaneous if they are exothermic and the decrease in entropy is small enough
- spontaneous if they are endothermic and the increase in entropy is big enough
- never spontaneous if they are endothermic and entropy decreases
If you find these study methods useful, visit the Chapter 18 resources at Cengage "Brain" companion site for our text. Click on the chapter dropdown and select Chapter 18 to use the flashcards and glossary.
Use the MindTap reader version of the textbook to view videos and test your understanding with interactive checkpoints. Check OWLv2 for your homework problems.
Videos for Chapter 18: Principles of Chemical Reactivity: Entropy and Free Energy
Review the Videos at Thinkwell Video Lessons.
- Under "THERMODYNAMICS"
- Using Free Energy
- Enthalpy and Entropy Contributions to K
Homework problems: See your Moodle assignment!
AP #15 GUIDED INQUIRY — Titration Methods — Phase II
Carry out your acid-base titration and analyze your data.
- AP2009 #6 Standardization of of solution using primary standards
- APGIE Investigation 14 Acid-Base Titration: How Do the Structure and the Initial Concentration of an Acid and a Base Influence the pH of the Result Solution During a Titration?
- IGHCE Lab 11.4 Standardize a Hydrochloric Acid Solution by Titration
- There is no alternate form for this lab
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