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Chemistry Honors/AP

Chemistry 16: 5-8

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WebLecture: Acids and Bases at Equilibrium

Kotz and Triechel, Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity Chapter 16: Sections 5-8.

  1. 16.5 In an acid-base reaction, equilibrium lies to the side with the weaker acid and base: that is, there will be more of the weaker acid and base than of the stronger acid and base at equilibrium.
  2. 16.6 Strong acids and bases dissociate completely. Weak acids and bases dissociate partially. This means the acid and its conjugate base (or the base and its conjugate acid) exist in equilibrium. In solutions, acids and bases react by donating protons to or taking protons from water molecules.
  3. 16.7 Equilibrium constants Ka and Kb are determined experimentally, but can be used to predict outcomes of reactions where concentrations are determined from a measured pH value. In many cases, the concentrations can be estimated from the concentration of the stronger component if the weaker conjugate component is less than 1% of the concentration of the stronger.
  4. 16.8 While some acids are capable of donating more than one proton, often the ionization energy for the second proton is so high that the contributing acid is very weak, and the number of second protons donated is very small compared to the number of first protons donated.

Videos for Chapter 16: Principles of Chemical Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases

Review the Videos at Thinkwell Video Lessons.

Homework problems: See your Moodle assignment!

AP #13 GUIDED INQUIRY — Determining the Properties of a Buffer Solution I and II

NOTE: This is a two-session lab.

Design an experiment to add an acid or base to a buffer solution of known composition and concentration and predict the outcome Identify the equipment and solutions required, along with your the method for determining pH (meter, test papers, or indicator). Prepare solutions of known molarities and carry out your experiment.