Kotz and Triechel, Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity Chapter 12: Sections 1-3.
- 12.1 Solids come in five major types:
- Ionic solids in need of positive and negative ions with no discrete molecules, held together by charges between negative and positive ions.
- Metallic solids are composed of pure elements or alloys in which the positive metal ions are held in position by electrostatic forces, but the electrons are delocalized.
- Molecular solids are composed of discrete molecules held together by dispersion forces, dipole forces, or hydrogen bonds.
- Network solids consist of atoms held together by covalent bonds or polar bonds in an infinite two or three dimensional network.
- Amorphous solids are covalent bonded networks that lack reg Ifularity.
We can analyze properties of the lattice components by creating "unit cells" which are representative of the structure of the lattice. The simplest cells are cubic cells, where atoms may occupy the corners (8), the edges (12), the center of a face (6), or the center of the cube (1). Atoms at the corners or face belong to more than one cell.
- 12.2 In symmetrical ionic solids, the unit cells can be constructed in different ways, depending on which atom is chosen as the center. In a cube-shaped arrangement, the central ion is surrounded by eight ions of the opposite charge type, occupying octahedral holes. Other attics solids take tetrahedral shapes were each ion is surrounded by four oppositely charged ions.
- 12.3 Lattice solids:It is important to think of ionic solids in three dimensions. Unlike the two-dimensional linear bonds we've considered for covalent bonds in molecules, the atom in an ionic bond is attracted to opposite charges in three dimensions. Ionic solids are held together by electrical forces, which determine the amount of work required to break the bonds. We can estimate the strength of the ionic bonds from the amount of heat required to create the ionic form.
Videos for Chapter 12: The Solid State
Review the Videos at Thinkwell Video Lessons.
- Under "Condensed Phases: Liquids and Solids"
- Solid State
Types of Solids
- Crystal Structure
- Crystal Packing
Homework problems: See your Moodle assignment!
AP #9 GUIDED INQUIRY — Measuring the dependence of reaction rates on temperature, surface area, concentration, and catalysts -- Phase II
Carry out the experiment you designed in Phase I. If you were able to set up two reactions, carry out both of them. Do your initial data analysis and graph your data.
- AP2009 12 Determination of the Rate of a reaction and its order
- APGIE Investigation 10 Kinetics: Rate of Reaction: How Long Will that Marble Statue Last?
- IGHCE Lab 12.1-4 Determination of the effect of Temperature, Surface Area, and Catalysts on Reaction Rates
- IGHCE Lab 12.2 Determination of the effect of Surface Area on Reaction Rate
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