Textbook assignment: Read Kotz and Triechel, Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity Chapter 3: Sections 6 to 7.
3.6 Acids and Bases There are several definitions of what characterizes an acid and a base; eventually you will learn all of them. For the current chapter, we define acids as proton donors and bases as proton acceptors OR chemical compounds that change the "free proton" or H+ population of a solution. Acidity or acid strength (or base strength) indicates how thoroughly a given substance dissociates.
Acid-base reactions will occur between two strong components (strong acid - strong base), or between a strong and a weak component (strong acid, weak base; weak acid, strong base). Be sure that you understand the outcome of a strong acid-strong base reaction and the implications for dealing with strong acids or bases safely!
3.7 Gas-Forming Reactions Many acid-base reactions involve combining acids with metal carbonates, which immediately breakdown to form CO3 gas. This characteristic is often used by geologist to analyze rock samples for the presence of carbonates as an aid to the classification of the sample. Be able to recognize a metal carbonate (usually an alkaline metal or alkaline earth metal plus the CO3 ion).
There are no formulae for these sections, but you should become familiar with the most common acids and bases, and the results of acid-base reactions.
|Strong Acids||Weak Acids|
|HCl hydrochorlic acid
HBr hydrobromic acid
HI hydroiodic acid
HNO3 nitric acid
HClO4 perchloric acid
|HF hdyrofluoric acid
H2PO4 phosphoric acid
H2CO3 carbonic acid
CH3CO2H acetic acid
H2C2O4 oxalic acid
H2C4H4O6 tartaric acid
H3C6H4O7 citric acid
|LiOH lithium hydroxide
NaOH sodium hydroxide (lye)
KOH potassium hydroxide
Ba(OH)2 barium hydroxide
Sr(OH)2 strontium hydroxide
|Salt + Water|
|NH3 Ammonia||Acidic Solution||Result varies, depending on concentrations|
When in doubt, check!
Read the following weblecture before chat: Acids and Bases
Review the Videos at Thinkwell Video Lessons under REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS.
Determination of water in copper sulfate pentahydrate and sodium hydrogen carbonate
What is the Amount of Water in Common Hydrates?
For this week: Carry out the method you devised last week to dehydrate a common household chemical and determine its formula by conservation of mass.
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