WebLecture: Both Carbon and Hydrocarbons and Alcohols, Ethers, Amines, Carbonyls, and Polymers
Kotz and Triechel, Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity Chapter 23: Sections 1-5.
- 23.1 Carbon is the basic element in all organic molecules, primarily because of its ability to form four bonds in multiple ways (four single bonds, a double bond and two single bonds, two double bonds, a triple bond and a single bond). This allows carbon to form molecules with multiple isomer structures, issue which may have a specific biological function. Carbon exhibits the same isomer variation we saw in Chapter 22: both structural isomers and stereoisomers (including geometric and optical isomers) can form for even very siple molecules. Carbon's position in the middle of the periodic table allows it to form strong covalent bonds with elements on either side, creating stable molecules that resist change. In other words, significant work (energy input) or the presence of catalysts (biological enzymes) is required to break and reform carbon compounds.
- 23.2 Hydrocarbons are the simplest carbon compounds. All hydrocarbons burn in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water.
- Alkanes have the formaula CnH2n+2. Each carbon within the chain is connected to a carbon on either side, it attached to a hydrogen atom for each of its two remaining bonds. The carbons on the end of the chain are attached to a third hydrogen instead of a second carbon. All of the bonds in alkanes are single bonds.
- Cycloalkanes are CnH2n molecules which form rings, rather than chains. Many chain hydrocarbons take this form when dissolved in water.
- Alkenes have a double bond between at least one pair of carbons in the chain, and the general formula CnH2n. Alkynes have a triple bond, and the general formula CnH2n-2. Both alkanes and alkynes are considered unsaturated compounds, since they do not hold the maximum amount of hydrogen possible. Because of the uneven distribution of hydrogen above or below the carbon atoms joined by a double or triple bond, unsaturated compounds form bent chains, have lower melting points, and radically different chemical reactivity from their alkane counterparts.
- Aromatic compounds include a class of molecules formed from 6-carbon rings with alternating double and single bonds, attached to hydrogens (benzene) or various other funcitonal groups which give the compound specific properties. Many of these compounds have characteristic scents.
- 23.3 Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines.
- Alcohols are compounds with one or more -OH functional groups attached to a base structure (general formula ROH, where R means "the rest of the molecule"). They have commercial uses as fuels (methanol), beverages (ethanol), and solvents (propanol). Where alkanes have low boiling points and are non-polar, their alcohol counterparts are polar and have higher boiling points, and dissolve more easily in water.
- Ethers have the general formula ROR' (R and R' are two different groups, joined by an oxygen). They are frequently formed by removing an H from the hydroxide functional group of an alcohol and replacing it with the R' molecular group. An ether formed this way will have a lower boiling point and less solubility than its parent alcohol species.
- Amines begin with an NH3 base group where one or more of the hydrogens is replaced with a functional group (alkanes, beenzyne rings). Most amines are not water soluble.
- 23.4 Compounds with a carbonyl group include aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, and amides. Each has particular biological properties, and most are synthesized by plants or animals as needed for metabolic functions. Most of the carbonyl group compounds transform from one form to another by reacting with water or with each other.
- 23.5 Polymers are compounds with extensive chains that can be formed through dehydration synthesis or peptide bond formation. Polymers that form long CH2 chains are the basis of rubber, polyester textiles, PET packaging materials, and thousands of other synthetic plastics.
If you find these study methods useful, visit the Chapter 23 resources at Cengage "Brain" companion site for our text. Click on the chapter dropdown and select Chapter 23 to use the flashcards and glossary.
Use the MindTap reader version of the textbook to view videos and test your understanding with interactive checkpoints. Check OWLv2 for your homework problems.
Videos for Chapter 23: Principles of Chemical Reactivity: Carbon
Review the Videos at Thinkwell Video Lessons.
- Under "NONMETALS"
- Group 14: Carbon and Silicon
- Under "ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
- Alkenes and Alkynes
- Aromatic Hydrocarbons
- The Functional Groups
- Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines
- Carbonyl-Containing Functional Groups
- Organic Polymers
Homework problems: See your Moodle assignment!
AP LAB #18 GUIDED INQUIRY — — GUIDED INQUIRY —
Titration quantitative analysis methods — Phase II
Carry out your procedure on both items to collect your data, then perform any data and error analysis. Determine whether you need to refine your techique, and if necessary, repeat your experiment to collect further data.
- APGIE Investigation 4: How much acid is in Fruit Juices and Soft Drinks
- APGIE Investigation 3: What Makes Hard Water Hard?
- IGHCE Lab 20.1 Quantitative Analysis of Vitamin C
- AP2009 8 Determination of Concentration by oxidation-reduction reactions
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