Kotz and Triechel, Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity Chapter 18: Sections 6-7.
- 18.6 One way to summarize the relationship of entropy and enthalpy is the Gibbs free energy equation. Any change either requires energy (energonic) or releases energy (exergonic); this energy change is the enthalpy of the change, and in chemistry, the enthalpy of the reaction, ΔH. Some energy will be lost or gained from a change in entropy ΔS where the energy amount depends on the temperature at which the change occurs. The difference between the enthalpy of the event and the change in entropy is the "free energy" ΔG: ΔG = ΔH - TΔS. If ΔG of a system is negative, the event is exergonic and the change is favored and spontaneous.
- 18.7 ΔG is a state change. ΔrG is the change in free energy for a chemical reaction; ΔrG° is the change at standard temperature and pressure. We can predict ΔrG at any condition if we know ΔrG°, the temperature, and the reaction quotient Q from the relationship:
ΔrG = ΔrG° + RT ln Q
If you find these study methods useful, visit the Chapter 18 resources at Cengage "Brain" companion site for our text. Click on the chapter dropdown and select Chapter 18 to use the flashcards and glossary.
Use the MindTap reader version of the textbook to view videos and test your understanding with interactive checkpoints. Check OWLv2 for your homework problems.
Videos for Chapter 18: Principles of Chemical Reactivity: Entropy and Free Energy
Review the Videos at Thinkwell Video Lessons.
- Under "THERMODYNAMICS"
- Gibbs Free Energy and Free Energy Change
- Gibbs Free Energy
- Standard Free Energy Changes of Formation
Homework problems: See your Moodle assignment!
AP #15 GUIDED INQUIRY — Titration Methods — Phase III
Complete your analysis; redo your experimental runs if necessary, then post your formal report.
- AP2009 #6 Standardization of of solution using primary standards
- APGIE Investigation 14 Acid-Base Titration: How Do the Structure and the Initial Concentration of an Acid and a Base Influence the pH of the Result Solution During a Titration?
- IGHCE Lab 11.4 Standardize a Hydrochloric Acid Solution by Titration
- There is no alternate form for this lab
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