WebLecture: Valence Bonds
Kotz and Triechel, Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity Chapter 9: Sections 1-2 (review or finish).
9.1: There are two primary ways to explain how atoms share electrons in bonds inside molecules. The two theories have mutually exclusive claims, so they can't simply be joined into one theory. As with wave-particle theories in quantum mechanics, we use whichever theory gives the best results for a given molecule.
9.2: Valence bond theory assumes that two atoms share the electrons that bind them together. As the bonds are formed, electrons shift in relationship to both nuclei to minimize repulsion effects. These shifts can cross orbital types, so that electrons normally in s and p orbitals in the un-attached atom wind up in "standardized" sp orbitals that allow both s and p electrons to participate at the same energy levels.
Review the Videos at Thinkwell Video Lessons.
Homework problems: See your Moodle assignment!
Using the resources below, design an experiment to determine how a small change to an equilibrium state affects a reaction. You may observe Le Chatelier's principle by modifying the concentration, volume, temperature, pressure, pH, products, or reactants of a solution at equilibrium, then suggest ways optimize the results of a reaction and increase product yield.
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